A new study that many are talking about has tested ancient Irish dna. It is titled "Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome". Using four ancient dna samples the authors propose that one settlement in Ireland occurred in the Neolithic ( Later Stone Age) era for which they used one sample and then in the Bronze Age they had three samples which all turned out to be of R1b L21. R1b L21 is associated with the so-called Bell Beaker folk as well as the Gaelic population of the British Isles.
The abstract of the Study states:
The Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions were profound cultural shifts catalyzed in parts of Europe by migrations, first of early farmers from the Near East and then Bronze Age herders from the Pontic Steppe. However, a decades-long, unresolved controversy is whether population change or cultural adoption occurred at the Atlantic edge, within the British Isles. We address this issue by using the first whole genome data from prehistoric Irish individuals. A Neolithic woman (3343–3020 cal BC) from a megalithic burial (10.3× coverage) possessed a genome of predominantly Near Eastern origin. She had some hunter–gatherer ancestry but belonged to a population of large effective size, suggesting a substantial influx of early farmers to the island. Three Bronze Age individuals from Rathlin Island (2026–1534 cal BC), including one high coverage (10.5×) genome, showed substantial Steppe genetic heritage indicating that the European population upheavals of the third millennium manifested all of the way from southern Siberia to the western ocean. This turnover invites the possibility of accompanying introduction of Indo-European, perhaps early Celtic, language. Irish Bronze Age haplotypic similarity is strongest within modern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh populations, and several important genetic variants that today show maximal or very high frequencies in Ireland appear at this horizon. These include those coding for lactase persistence, blue eye color, Y chromosome R1b haplotypes, and the hemochromatosis C282Y allele; to our knowledge, the first detection of a known Mendelian disease variant in prehistory. These findings together suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4,000 y ago.
Of course according to a historical and biblical dating methodology the dates for these bodies is nowhere near as ancient. The British and European so-called Stone Age occurred after the end of the European Ice Age. Velikovsky dates the end of this Ice Age to around 1500 BC rather than the dates around 15,000 BC. Stone Age is a level of technology rather than a dating method. Thus the Neolithic woman probably lived around the 600-300 BC and the Bronze Age or Bell Beaker folk invaded Ireland after 300 BC from Spain. Thus the Rathlin Island samples probably lived in the 2nd century BC.
These people are descendants of the Milesians of Irish history and legend also called the Gaels and Heberi. They came to Ireland and Britain via Spain and the Mediterranean as it would seem also the ancestors of the Neolithic woman at an earlier date. Many are puzzled at the 70 percent non-steppe at-dna of the Bronze Age samples which would demonstrate that steppe R1b and the Central European Celts are not ancestral to R1b L21but have their common source outside Europe. That common source (R1b P312+) originates in the Middle East and in particular the region of Israel sometime before 500 BC.
A third of the at-dna that has origins in the Pontic steppe area of the Black Sea. The early Irish accounts of the history of the Milesians also mention them living in this area of Scythia before they moved via North Africa to Spain.These Gael/Milesians also brought with them the lactose or milk drinking gene. According to the study the Neolithic woman had black hair and brown eyes, whereas the Bronze Age men had blue eyes and brown or fair hair.
The Milesians founded Miletus in Asia Minor around 600 BC or earlier coming from the land of Kedar (Kadmos or Ked-mu) in the Indian Ocean. Miletus was named after the Miletians (the Militia of Kedar) who fought with Troy in 690 BC who later settled in Asia Minor under Nilius (Nimlot/ Eliezer). They established Milesian (Mu/ Ma) colonies in the Black Sea region and in Egypt and North Africa (Libya) before moving into the north west of Spain before 295 BC as the Heberu (Habiru) in northern Castile and Leon and Beredi (Brigedi or Briganti) in Galicia. The bulk of the Milesian warriors entered Egypt and Libya after Miletus was conquered by the Babylonians around 500 BC in the reign of Seti I. The last of the Milesians living in Miletus under the Babylonians were exterminated by the Babylonians around 450 BC. Anaximander of Miletus was born around 561 BC and died in 497 BC. Thales of Miletus lived around 547-497 BC and Herodotus the great historian around 454-395 BC and Socrates around 440-369 BC.
The Heberu (Hibernians) moved and conquered and settled Ireland and the Bregedi (Brigantes) settled in Britain around 250 BC. The name of Brigedi possibly originating in the term Beni haGadoli [sons of Gadol (Redemption)]. Breoghan (known as Brennius) [335-279 BC] and accompanied by his son Bile [b. 315 BC] led the great exodus out of Siberian Scythia to northern Spain before 300 BC and they became allies with the European Celts (La Tene of R1b U152 ydna) in Pannonia led by Acichorius. In 280 BC Breoghan or Brennius led the combined Gaelic and Celtic forces against the Greeks in the Balkans. Later stories confused him with a earlier Senones leader called Brennius who attacked Rome in 390 BC. The Senones are associated by some researchers with the Tribe of Simeon and were most likely of R1b DF27 ydna.
One study by David Faux titled " A Genetic Signal of Central European Celtic Ancestry: Preliminary Research Concerning Y-Chromsome Marker U152" believes that the core y-dna of the Celts of Europe (but not exclusive of other ydna) is R1b U152. Thus the Celtic and Gaelic peoples are related but distinct peoples who entered Europe in their core populations in separate migrations.
Some reservations need to be keep in mind with the first study mentioned as it is based on a small sample of ancient dna from just four people from two locations. More samples need to be tested in more locations. However this study (once its dating methodology is adjusted) would seem to strengthen rather than weaken my theories on the movements of dna and its origins. It is amazing how the genetics confirm the traditional legendary Irish accounts of the Milesians if one adjusts the dating methodologies.
Note: Velikovsky's date of 1500 BC for the end of the Ice Age correlates with the end of the so-called Middle Kingdom of Egypt and the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. Thus all the European cultures post Ice Age must have existed post 1500 BC rather than 15,000 year ago. In fact in the days of Velikovsky scientists dated the end of the Ice Age to 15,000,000 years before the present. The date of the Exodus was around 1350 BC and thus the true end of the Ice Age in Europe and thus the cultures mentioned by archaeologists must be dated within this lower time scale. The Battle of Troy occurred around 690 BC and the destruction of the Jewish Temple of Solomon around 460 BC.The Habiru Milesians left Egypt during the reign of Ramses VI (Nectanebo II) around 330 BC. The Godoli Milesians left Egypt and Libya under Bile's future wife Princess Tia at the end of the reign of Rameses X around 295 BC when Ptolemy I became the first Macedonian Pharoah of Egypt.