Wednesday, December 30, 2015

R1b L21 and the ancient Rathlin Island ydna





A new study that many are talking about has tested ancient Irish dna. It is titled "Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome".  Using four ancient dna samples the authors propose that one settlement in Ireland occurred in the Neolithic ( Later Stone Age) era for which they used one sample and then in the Bronze Age they had three samples which all turned out to be of R1b L21. R1b L21 is associated with the so-called Bell Beaker folk as well as the Gaelic population of the British Isles. 


The abstract of the Study states:  

The Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions were profound cultural shifts catalyzed in parts of Europe by migrations, first of early farmers from the Near East and then Bronze Age herders from the Pontic Steppe. However, a decades-long, unresolved controversy is whether population change or cultural adoption occurred at the Atlantic edge, within the British Isles. We address this issue by using the first whole genome data from prehistoric Irish individuals. A Neolithic woman (3343–3020 cal BC) from a megalithic burial (10.3× coverage) possessed a genome of predominantly Near Eastern origin. She had some hunter–gatherer ancestry but belonged to a population of large effective size, suggesting a substantial influx of early farmers to the island. Three Bronze Age individuals from Rathlin Island (2026–1534 cal BC), including one high coverage (10.5×) genome, showed substantial Steppe genetic heritage indicating that the European population upheavals of the third millennium manifested all of the way from southern Siberia to the western ocean. This turnover invites the possibility of accompanying introduction of Indo-European, perhaps early Celtic, language. Irish Bronze Age haplotypic similarity is strongest within modern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh populations, and several important genetic variants that today show maximal or very high frequencies in Ireland appear at this horizon. These include those coding for lactase persistence, blue eye color, Y chromosome R1b haplotypes, and the hemochromatosis C282Y allele; to our knowledge, the first detection of a known Mendelian disease variant in prehistory. These findings together suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4,000 y ago.

Of course according to a historical and biblical dating methodology the dates for these bodies is nowhere near as ancient. The British and European so-called Stone Age occurred after the end of the European Ice Age. Velikovsky dates the end of this Ice Age to around 1500 BC rather than the dates around 15,000 BC. Stone Age is a level of technology rather than a dating method. Thus the Neolithic woman probably lived around the 600-300 BC and the Bronze Age or Bell Beaker folk invaded Ireland after 300 BC from Spain. Thus the Rathlin Island samples probably lived in the 2nd century BC.

These people are descendants of the Milesians of Irish history and legend also called the Gaels and Heberi. They came to Ireland and Britain via Spain and the Mediterranean as it would seem also the ancestors of the Neolithic woman at an earlier date. Many are puzzled at the 70 percent non-steppe at-dna of the Bronze Age samples which would demonstrate that steppe R1b and the Central European Celts are not ancestral to R1b L21but have their common source outside Europe. That common source (R1b P312+) originates in the Middle East and in particular the region of Israel sometime before 500 BC. 

A third of the at-dna that has origins in the Pontic steppe area of the Black Sea. The early Irish accounts of the history of the Milesians also mention them living in this area of Scythia before they moved via North Africa to Spain.These Gael/Milesians also brought with them the lactose or milk drinking gene. According to the study the Neolithic woman had black hair and brown eyes, whereas the Bronze Age men had blue eyes and brown or fair hair. 

The Milesians founded Miletus in Asia Minor around 600 BC or earlier coming from the land of Kedar (Kadmos or Ked-mu) in the Indian Ocean. Miletus was named after the Miletians (the Militia of Kedar) who fought with Troy in 690 BC who later settled in Asia Minor under Nilius (Nimlot/ Eliezer). They established Milesian (Mu/ Ma) colonies in the Black Sea region and in Egypt and North Africa (Libya) before moving into the north west of Spain before 295 BC as the Heberu (Habiru) in northern Castile and Leon and Beredi (Brigedi or Briganti) in Galicia. The bulk of the Milesian warriors entered Egypt and Libya after Miletus was conquered by the Babylonians around 500 BC in the reign of Seti I. The last of the Milesians living in Miletus under the Babylonians were exterminated by the Babylonians around 450 BC. Anaximander of Miletus was born around 561 BC and died in 497 BC. Thales of Miletus lived around 547-497 BC and Herodotus the great historian around 454-395 BC and Socrates around 440-369 BC.

The Heberu (Hibernians) moved and conquered and settled Ireland and the Bregedi (Brigantes) settled in Britain around 250 BC. The name of Brigedi possibly originating in the term Beni haGadoli [sons of Gadol (Redemption)]. Breoghan (known as Brennius) [335-279 BC] and accompanied by his son Bile [b. 315 BC] led the great exodus out of Siberian Scythia to northern Spain before 300 BC and they became allies with the European Celts (La Tene of R1b U152 ydna) in Pannonia led by Acichorius. In 280 BC Breoghan or Brennius led the combined Gaelic and Celtic forces against the Greeks in the Balkans. Later stories confused him with a earlier Senones leader called Brennius who attacked Rome in 390 BC. The Senones are associated by some researchers with the Tribe of Simeon and were most likely of R1b DF27 ydna.

One study by David Faux titled " A Genetic Signal of Central European Celtic Ancestry: Preliminary Research Concerning Y-Chromsome Marker U152"  believes that the core y-dna of the Celts of Europe (but not exclusive of other ydna) is R1b U152. Thus the Celtic and Gaelic peoples are related but distinct peoples who entered Europe in their core populations in separate migrations.

Some reservations need to be keep in mind with the first study mentioned as it is based on a small sample of ancient dna from just four people from two locations. More samples need to be tested in more locations. However this study (once its dating methodology is adjusted) would seem to strengthen rather than weaken my theories on the movements of dna and its origins. It is amazing how the genetics confirm the traditional legendary Irish accounts of the Milesians if one adjusts the dating methodologies.


Note: Velikovsky's date of 1500 BC for the end of the Ice Age correlates with the end of the so-called Middle Kingdom of Egypt and the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. Thus all the European cultures post Ice Age must have existed post 1500 BC rather than 15,000 year ago. In fact in the days of Velikovsky scientists dated the end of the Ice Age to 15,000,000 years before the present. The date of the Exodus was around 1350 BC and thus the true end of the Ice Age in Europe and thus the cultures mentioned by archaeologists must be dated within this lower time scale. The Battle of Troy occurred around 690 BC and the destruction of the Jewish Temple of Solomon around 460 BC.The Habiru Milesians left Egypt during the reign of Ramses VI (Nectanebo II) around 330 BC. The Godoli Milesians left Egypt and Libya under Bile's future wife Princess Tia at the end of the reign of Rameses X around 295 BC when Ptolemy I became the first Macedonian Pharoah of Egypt.


Tuesday, December 15, 2015

K ydna from Ancient Australia (South East Asia and Oceania)

Last year was published a study that seems to add confirmation to my theories that the ydna Hebrew ancestors of the Israelites (NOP ydna) came from ancient Australia.

Refined structure in haplogroup K-M526 (Karafet et al. 2014)



European Journal of Human Genetics , (4 June 2014) | doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.106
Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia
Tatiana M Karafet, Fernando L Mendez, Herawati Sudoyo, J Stephen Lansing and Michael F Hammer
Abstract
The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a–d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q.

My study of dna leads me to conclude that mt-dna has an influence on the mutations that occur in y-dna. It also seems that environmental factors not only affect a mutation change in one individual but the same mutation can occur in all those of that group. Thus IJ are the descendants of Abraham's son Ishmael by his Egyptian wife Hagar born before the cataclysmic events of Sodom. K are the descendants of Abraham's son Isaac by his Hebrew wife Sarah and his sons by his Black wife Keturah born after the cataclysmic events. 

K1 (or LT) are the descendants of Isaac's son Esau and K2 are the descendants of  Isaac son Jacob (Israel). K2a (or NO) represents the descendants of Jacob by his sons by his concubines Bilhah and Zilpah. K2b1, K2c, K2d and K2e are the descendants of Abraham by Keturah. M,K-P60 and K-P79 and S are descendants of K2b1. P are the descendants of Jacob by his sons by his Hebrew wives Rachel and Leah. R is found among all those sons of Leah and Rachel that went into Egypt the first time to get grain as well as Joseph who was already in Egypt. 

Q is those of Benjamin who didn't go to Egypt the first time and Benjamin was the only child of Jacob born in Canaan. R1 represents also those of R that moved into Egypt. R2 may have been a grandson of Jacob who one of his sons (possibly Dan) had with a black woman who went with Keturah's sons into the east rather than Egypt. This child did not inherit the gene for white skin. R1a and R1b are the descendants of R1 ydna who left with Moses in the Exodus.

Another Study in 2011 also seems to confirm that my theories that most of mankind weathered the Ice Age in South East Asia (Sundaland) and Northern Australia. Using an evolutionary timescale they talk about 19,000 years ago rather than just over 4000 years ago. The full extent of the Ice Age lasted for about 75-100 years before it stated to recede allowing mankind to move back into the Middle East. In Europe it lasted until about 1500 BC according to Velikovsky. That part of mankind that weathered the Ice Age in Sundaland and northern ancient Australia belong to CT ydna, whereas A and B branch of mankind spent it in isolation in Africa. More evidence is confirming an 'Out of Australia' rather than an 'Out of Africa' scenario for most of mankind. Until recently I thought that CF ydna was the Sons of Heber with C ydna being the descendants of Joktan. CF haplogroup are the sons of Shem. I now believe C ydna is the dna of the Sons of Arpachshad.






 

Saturday, December 12, 2015

Timeline for R1b M222+ ydna Haplogroups: A260, S588, DF85, DF97.

 R1b M222+ ydna map

R1b M222+ ydna is a branch of R1b L21 ydna. This branching off from its parent is dated by researchers anywhere from 2,600 BC - 500 AD. Many of these researchers are using a timeline methodology based on evolutionary assumptions for mutation rates. I use a Biblical and historical timeline based on the germ-line rate of mutations as well as taking into account other factors such as environmental and cataclysmic factors for the dating of ydna. 

In fact alot of the mutations in dna did not occur until the time of Abraham and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah when Jewish tradition tells us that the aging process we know began. Thus our images of Noah as a grey haired old man are incorrect as he and his wife looked no older than their sons and daughter-in-laws. That is why Sarah over 75 years of age was still perceived as beautiful by Pharaoh and Abimelech. However certain mutations occurred as a result of the Flood and the destruction of Babel and this is demonstrated in the lessening of the age of life each generation after the Flood and also that Sarah while she may have still looked exteriorly young by 90 she was not considered fertile for conceiving children. However after the time of Sodom, Abraham and all men started to show more rapid aging. Isaac's generation were the first to have degenerative diseases like blindness. (see Rabbi Dovid Brown "Mysteries of Creation")

Some researchers date the arrival of E3b and J2 to Britain to more than 4,000 years ago whereas in reality they most likely arrived in Britain with the Romans about 2000 years ago.  Thus we see that the dating of both R1b M222+ and E3b and J2 are off by at least 2000 years. J2 and E3b are found among Samaritan and Jewish populations (of Assyro-Samaritan origin). J2 ydna branched off  from J ydna (Ishmaelite) less than 3,800 years ago at around the same time as R1b branched off from R and NOP ydna (Israelite).

 The male ydna Adam existed no more than about 4,400 years ago (2400 BC) with Noah. I date the IJK to around 4000 years ago ( 2000 BC) with Abraham. NOP ydna I date to about 3,800 years ago (1800 BC) with Jacob from which R ydna originated.

I date R1b M222+ to around 2000 years ago to St Joseph of Arimathea or his son who bought it to southern Britain. From southern Britain his descendants spread it to Scotland and Ireland and other places. R1b M222+S7073+ is dated to King Duncan I of Scotland around a 1000 years ago. All of those people of the haplogroups listed below are descendants of King Duncan I of Scots. This method is also consistent with genealogical records and ancestry of those men tested for these haplogroups. 

Below is listed some of the groups downstream of M222+ with a hundred year window of when their distinguishing  SNP or mutation took place.

R1b M222+ S658+ [1050 -1150 AD].

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ [1150-1350 AD].

R1b M222+ S568+ [after 1050 AD].

R1b M222+ FGC4077 [after 1050 AD].

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ [1350-1450 AD].

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ S588+ [1400-1500 AD].

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ DF85+ [1400-1500 AD].

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ DF85+ S673+ [1400-1500 AD]. 

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ DF85+ S673+ DF97 [1500-1600 AD].

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ A259+ [1400-1550 AD]. Most likely one of the Alexander Barons of Menstrie

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ A259+ A260+ [1550-1700 AD]. Most likely William Alexander Earl of Stirling's great-grandson Alexander Alexander or his son.

R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ A259+ A260+ A883+ [1700-1800 AD] Most likely Count (John) Alexander O'Reilly [born 1722 Baltrasna Meath] the great-grandson of Alexander Alexander. His son or grandson was the biological grandfather of Patrick Byrne of Monaghan from whom A887+ descend.

Thus many of these haplogroups are within the timeline of genealogical records.  Thus everyone with DF104+ are descendants of King David I of Scots. DF85+ are most likely the descendants of a son or grandson of  Donald II the 9th Lord of the Isles (son of John Alexander Lord of the Isles and Princess Margaret Stewart). It is also possible that they descend from a brother of Donald II rather than Donald II himself. S588+ are most likely also descendants of another son or grandson of Donald II 9th Lord of the Isles. It is also possible that R1b M222+ S658+ DF104+ DF105+ A223+ is found among the descendants of John (Iain) Mor Tanister MacDonald (MacDonnell) whose descendants went to Antrim, Ulster. One of his descendants in Ireland, Ranald MacDonnell the 1st Earl of Antrim (d.1636), had an illegitimate son called James MacMasters. Taniste and Master in Scotland refer to the heir of a chief or king. 

We are still in the early days of research into human dna. I believe my template of M222+ to be a reasonably accurate one that fits the presently known evidence however one must always be open to further research and input both in the areas of genetics and genealogy. Much more work needs to be done with the dna testing of the human remains of those who are buried in tombs such as the kings and nobility to confirm their actual dna rather than relying purely on people living today who are their presumed descendants. Familytree dna speaks about M222+ coming to Scotland about a 1000 years ago which I also believe to be partly true. They state:

 "Haplogroup R-M222 began in northwestern Europe and is a descendant of the major R-M269 lineage. It is present in over 12 percent of the population in Ireland. This may be due to its connection to the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties. The R-M222 likely originated in Ireland and spread to the Scotland about 1,000 years ago."

Alot of the M222+ found in Ireland today also comes via individuals and families who moved into Ireland in the last 1000 years from Scotland. M222+ that is not via Scotland will most likely be S7073- [M222+ (xS7073)].  However even some of this may be Scottish as well as Irish. More dna testing needs to be done in Ireland as many of those who are participating in deeper testing are  descended from immigrants to America and Australasia where there is a great interest in genealogy. 

It would seem that many of the male lines of the Ui Neill descended directly from Niall and his brothers died out probably due to being killed in battles with the Vikings and others. The later Ui Neill kings were not from M222+. It would seem the branch that in the 10th century went to Scotland (from which King Duncan I came) became very fertile for male offspring. 

Some researchers who are using a different dating methodology are linking this branching out of M222+ with the brothers and sons of Niall of the Nine Hostages around 1500 years ago. However the overall evidence seems to be always leading back to Scotland rather than Ireland for this branching out of the M222+ tree. However, in my opinion at this stage, even those researching who are perceiving the Scottish factor are confused due to their dating of this branching out too early in Scottish history. 

If I am wrong and this branching out started around 1800-2000 years ago then it could possibly fit the pattern of the spread of the kin of Joseph of Arimathea (Jewish Christian Exilarchs) who from their base in Glastonbury spread out to Ireland and Scotland. However the evidence of the names combined with genealogy and genetics seems to fit more with my idea that this branching out of M222+ occurred in the House of Dunkeld-Atholl around a 1000 years ago. There would also seem to be some kind of environmental events happening in the 10th century that affected the dna of those belonging to M222+ haplogroup. This is also a time when the weather in Europe changed and allowed settlement in Iceland and Greenland.

Note 1: Most evolutionary dating methodologies are based on an evolutionary idea that humans and chimpanzees separated about 5 million years ago and thus are based on the assumption that these evolutionary interpretations are correct (the socalled Molecular clocks). However even following a germ-line approach has problems if one assumes that the mutation rate is always constant and not affected by environmental factors. In regards to ydna the rate of mutation is estimated to be one in every 3 -5 generations. This may be true for R1b now but the mutation rate may have changed a number of times in the past due to cataclysmic events or radical weather changes. This is why the genetics needs also the genealogical evidence to make a more reliable evaluation of the time scale of haplogroups.  

Note 2: Looking at the evidence by putting genealogical records and genetics together reveals that some male offspring do not receive the full mutations of their fathers but revert to previous levels. For example a father may have A260 and some of his sons receive this SNP but some revert to A259 or M222 or even further back without A260. This rather complicates the ydna evidence but needs to betaken into account.


King David I of Scots

see R1b M222+ Tree and Scotland

Thursday, December 3, 2015

Y-dna Movements of the R1b Tribes of Israel


On the internet we see many charts tracing the migration of dna haplogroups from their believed places of origin to where they are found today. This information is sometimes supplemented with ancient dna which can be helpful when interpreted in the correct time scale. Of course most of these charts are done by people who accept the evolutionary dating of cultures, archaeological sites and genetics. Much of this is the guesswork of the authors of these charts. 

Some see the origin of a haplogroup as the place where it has its greatest variety, others where it is today the most populous. The place where it has its greatest variety is a good place to start. However one must be aware that there may be other factors why this place has the greatest variety. The place of origin today may have no one of that haplogroup present due to a number of factors. Environment also can cause a mutation in a group of people of the same dna which has not been taken into account by many even though there are scientific studies that demonstrate that environment is also an important factor.

Recently I have been reflecting on the movement of R1b into Europe. One will often see charts marking some kind of movement of R1b from Iran ( R1b M343+) to Central Europe via the Russian Steppes. Other believe R1b's original home was in Eastern Turkey. In fact R1b M343 began in Israel (sons of Reuben, Judah, Simeon, Levi, Zebulon and Issachar) and then moved south to Egypt (R1b P25+). A branch of Reuben (R1b M335+)  left Egypt and settled in Anatolia (Turkey). The black sons of Moses (R1b V88+) by his Cushite wife went south into Africa, while his white sons of R1b V88+ by his Midianite wife went with the other Israelites into Canaan (Israel). Those Israelites who are R1b M343+ P25- represent those R1b Israelites who left Egypt before the enslavement of the Israelites by the Egyptians. 


R1b M73+ represent the sons of Zerah Judah who went south to the Australian Egypto-Israelite colonies and north to Anatolia as the Rulers. Thus the mutation of M73 took place in Egypt. The bulk of the R1b Israelites who left Egypt in the Exodus for Israel were R1b M269+ (which may have occurred in wilderness at Sinai). The Levites and Cohenim who went into the Northern Tribes of Israel (Joseph) were R1b M269+ L23- while the bulk of  the R1b Tribes were R1b L23+. R1b L51+ represents the sons of Leah R1b Tribes of the time of the separate ten tribed Kingdom of Israel (Samaria). R1b Z2103+ represents those of R1b of the southern Kingdom of Judah (mostly Judah, Davidic House of Solomon, Levi and Cohenim).

One branch of the Tribe of Zebulon became R1b U106+ who as tall blonde haired sailors and warriors established colonies in Tharshish and Zarephath in Western Europe that eventually spread to the Americas. They may have been assisted in this by Ephraimite Phoenicians of R1a SYR1532.2- [also called R1a (xSYR1532.2) or M420*]. These are the so-called blonde haired blue eyed ancient Greeks of the Iliad and Odysseus. The Zebulonite R1b make up less then 5 % of the population of modern Greece. The bulk of the R1b Northern Israelites remained in Israel as R1b P312/S116+. It would seem that a branch of the Davidic House of Nathan (R1b L21) was part of the Northern Israelite kingdom who went into the southern colonies in Australia to Kedar (which was ruled by a Nathanite Prince) in the 7th century BC. A large group of them later returned to the West and settled in Libya and Anatolia before moving to Spain and then the British Isles.

At the time of the Assyrian advance on Israel around 600 BC (721 BC of the accepted modern chronology of academia) the bulk of the Tribe of Simeon moved across the Mediterranean to the Israelite colonies in Spain (R1b DF 27). The Assyrians moved some of the tribes to the North (who later moved into Europe across the Russian steps) and to the mountains of the South (who later moved south into South East Asia and Australia). The Zebulonites of  R1b  L238/S182 went north and moved eventually into Scandinavia along with the Northern Reubenites of R1b U152 and the Tribe of Issachar of  R1b DF19/S232 and the R1a Israelites of the Tribe of  Ephraim. The remnant of the R1b U152 in the Rhodan kingdom of Australia moved to Russia via Oman and Afghanistan after 1530 along with the remnant of Manasseh of R1a Z93 (found among the Pashtuns). The Manassehite Pashtuns joined the Benjaminite Afghans of Q ydna after 1530. 

The Reubenite Bashkirs (35% of all Bashkiri) joined the Mongolian Bashkirs (C ydna and O ydna are about 3 % of all Bashkiri) after 1530, along with some Naphtalites (N ydna is 17% of all Bashkiri), Zerah-Judaites (R1b M73 is 2 % of all Bashkiri) and some Jewish (R1b Ht 35 is 13 % of all Bashkiri) and some Ephraimite Bashkirs (R1a Z280 is 26% of all Bashkiri). The original Bashkirs were those of the warrior ruling class of  N ydna of the Hephthalites or Naphtalites (originally from their Naphtalite kingdom in Siberia) with the Parthian R1a peoples who were part of their Hephthalite Empire (400-700 AD) in the Hindu Kush area of Afghanistan. Another branch of the Hephthalites or White Huns went to Hungary in the 9th century. Much of the warrior class of N ydna went north to the Baltic region with many of the R1a lower classes (Ephraimite Parthians and Slavs) bringing their language to Estonia and Finland.

Further deep clade testing of both ancient and modern dna is necessary. For example R1b found among natives in the Americas or Australasia is often presumed to have come into their groups though recent European migration when in fact some of it may be in the population from earlier times. Thus Aboriginals in Australia who test for R1b U152 are automatically presumed to have had some kind of French input by French sailors rather than coming from the older R1b U152 of the Rhodan or Reubenite white people of pre-1530 Chabor in Central Australia. The bulk of these white people left Australia in 1530 and are now found mainly among the Baskirs of Russia (especially high among the Bashkirs of the north of Bashkorstan) and among people now living on the border region Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Even with ancient dna we have the problem of the faulty dating methodologies who give inaccurate dates for such remains. Thus we have R1a remains in Western China being dated to 2000 BC rather than to post 600 BC.



see

The Hebrew Y-dna: A New Understanding