Tuesday, July 9, 2013

Marco Polo and the Lost Continent


 
Portuguese Map of 1566 showing the Island of Giants between Madagascar and Western Australia

A French ship in 1803 claimed to have had an encounter with a 100 Giants at Shark Bay and others also write of Giants in Australia. The 16th century Portuguese maps show an Isle de Geants (Island of the Giants) in the Indian Ocean between Madagascar and Western Australia. If one looks at google earth it is clear that the land has now sunk under the sea. It would seem that the Tsunamis and earthquakes of the 16th century sunk these lands into the sea and a remnant of the Giants settled in the Shark Bay area where the French encountered them in 1803. Marco Polo (in Book III) calls this island Condur. Marco Polo describes Condur as about 700 miles south-southwest of the island continent of Greater Java (Australia) from the port city of Greater Java (which would probably been at Sheba near the King Sound). Greater Java the Island continent is rich in trade goods (this was before its coast line fell into the sea) and was ruled by a great King. Around 1293 Kublai Khan sent an expedition to conquer Greater Java and was roundly defeated and lost 3000 men. 

South of Condur was the Island of Sondur which also went under the Ocean around either 1350 AD or 1530 AD. The only remnants of Sondur are the Ile d'Amsterdam and the Ile de Paul. Marco Polo then states that 500 miles South of Sondur is the lands and islands of the Kergeulen Plateau or Catigara. The Port city called Catigara was in Australia (Sinus Magna) from where travellers and merchants departed for Catigara (Kergeulen). The first Kingdom mentioned by Marco Polo in the 13th century is in the North of the Kerguelen Plateau is the Kingdom of Soucat (Sukhotai) or Locac. In this kingdom are found many riches including elephants. The Island of Kergeulen is the last remnant of Locac/ Soucat. The Island of Pentam to the south of Locac (Northern Keuguelen) is covered with scented trees. Then for a further 90 miles is the Island of Malaiur (Pentam and Malaiur are in the Central Kergeulen Plateau). 
 
A 100 miles to the south of Pentam Island is the Island of Java the Less (the Portuguese later named Java in Indonesia and Malaya after this description in Marco Polo). Java the Less is only less in comparison to Java the Great. Marco Polo states that it is 2000 miles around it. It is in southern Kergeulen Plateau (Elan and Banzarre Banks). It is divided into 8 kingdoms ruled by 8 kings. 


The Sunken Continent of Kerguelen

One of these kingdoms was Ferlec whose coastal people had converted to Islam while the inland people remained pagans and were cannibals. The next Kingdom he describes is called Basma and the people are also wild pagans and they have elephants and rhinoceroses (what he calls unicorns). They consider themselves to be subjects of Kublai Khan but are actually independent. They also have monkeys and even a trade in fake pygmies which are monkeys that are plucked and sold as pygmies according to Marco Polo. The next Kingdom is called Samara and also claims to be subject to the Great Khan and its people are wild pagans and cannibals. Polo states again that from this land the North Pole Star cannot be seen nor the constellation of Arcturus (Meistre). 


The next kingdom Dragoian is also ruled by sorcerers and practice cannibal rituals. Then there is Lambri and Fansur plus two lands that Marco Polo didn't visit on the other side of the Island. Marco Polo left Lambri and headed 150 miles north to a small island inhabited by wild naked people. It is called Nercuveran (Necouran). This island also has another sister island nearby where these people also live called Gauenispola.

There seems to be a break in the story here and the writer than goes on to talk about the Andaman Islands which Polo calls Angamanain (which may have been a single island in those days). He obviously sailed from Nercuveran to the Andaman Islands. There was either a current that at this time took one direct to the Andamans or Polo didn't wish to repeat the details of a return trip. Here the people have heads that look like dogs to Polo. He then travels a thousand miles west (slightly south) to a large island called Seilan (Ceylon) that was once a bigger island that had fallen into the sea. The King of this island is called Sendemain. It is also abundant in rubies and others gems. They tell of an ancient hero called Sagamoni Borcan (Buddha) in a time before they embraced idolatry who was a saint. His shrine is on a high mountain. The Muslims believe it is the Sepulchre of Adam. From there Polo travelled to India (the First India).

It would seem at this time that the lands of the Kergeulen Plateau were in a warm climate. We also have the north coast of Antarctica on a map of 1513 (Piri Reis map) free of ice. It would seem that as recently as the Middle Ages, Antarctica (or at least the northern part of it), was free of ice. It would seem that the temperature in this part of the world changed around the same time as the Little Ice Age descended on Europe. Antarctica became covered with ice. At this time huge Tsunamis hit the west and south-east coasts of Australia and many lands sunk into the Ocean. What events happened in the southern hemisphere to trigger these events?  

Ian Thornton in his book "Krakatau: the Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem" mentions that Krakatoa erupted around 1530. It would seem that this was the time of the Great Tsunamis and earthquakes and also bombardment of the earth by celestial objects. Krakatoa had also erupted in 1350. A much earlier eruption occurred about 535 AD at the same time that Dallas Abbott  believes that an asteroid hit the Gulf of Carpentaria in two pieces and caused a huge Tsunami. This led to the mini Ice Age in Europe and the end of the Arthurian Kingdom. In 534 AD the Chinese astronomers saw Mars in the constellation known as 'King Arthur's Chariot' (the Big Dipper) in Britain and 'King David's Chariot' in Ireland. 

The Kergeulen Plateau Islands were still above water in the 1280's when Marco Polo visited and they may have been destroyed and sunk in 1350 and this may have triggered the Little Ice Age and the freezing of all of Antarctica.  Or it may have occurred in 1530 as scientists are still in disagreement about when this Little Ice Age began. It would seem that the wild Cannibals of Java the Less (Austronesians and Melanasians - C-M38 ydna with M-ydna and S ydna) moved to modern day Indonesia and later New Guinea after the sinking of their homeland in 1350 and were stopped from going to Australia due to its rule by its powerful Monarch mentioned by Marco Polo. As nominal subjects of the Chinese Emperor they had become nominal enemies to the Australians so they were settled to the north of Australia in south East Asia. At this time the Chinese Emperors had lost control of their Empire and the Austronesians/ Melanasians (the Kergeulens) met little resistance. 



After the destruction of Australia in 1530 the Kergeulens moved into New Guinea and the Polynesia Islands (C-M38 ydna with M-ydna and S ydna) and into Australia (C-M347 ydna). Thus instead of these C-M347 ydna aboriginals being present in Australia for 40,000 or more years they have in fact come as a recent influx beginning post 1530 AD after the bulk of the older "white" aboriginals left for Afghanistan/ Pakistan region. It is possible that the Australian aborigines of C-M347 came from the Island of Nercuveran and its sister island which had survived being sunk in 1350 AD but instead sunk in 1530 AD. If this is so then it would most likely demonstrate that the Little Ice Age began in 1530 rather than 1350 as these natives were naked. This would also demonstrate that the 1513 Piri Reis map showing the northern coast of Antarctica without ice was from recent sources.
This 3-D reconstruction of the topography hidden under Antarctica's two-mile-thick coating of ice was made using data from radar surveys. (c) Stuart N. Thomson/UA department of geosciences

The Kergeulens and Nercuvernans of C-M130 ydna had originally come from Australia and South East Asia to the lands of the Kergeulen Plateau which may have been one mainland then (around 1400 BC).  C-M347 occurred in Nercuvernan before they came to Australia post 1530. It was probably in the time of the Han dynasty that the tribes of Kergeulen came under the Overlordship of the Chinese Emperor. Geologists and Scientists have discovered that at one time in the past Antarctica had palm trees and a warm climate and sea. The native peoples of Kergeulen (Java the less) and its nearby islands and lands went naked or semi naked in many instances and rhinoceroses and elephants and monkeys which was there in abundance dwell in warm climates. I agree with the scientists but don't accept the speculative datings of the scientists. Instead of millions of years ago or even thousands Antarctica was temperate and green just hundreds of years ago. 

Besides the account of Marco Polo we also have the account of Sir John Mandeville in the 1320's that relates that the Kergeulen Plateau was known as Lamary (Lesser Java) and he describes these same naked and semi naked natives who are cannibals. He writes: 


"...But in that country there is a cursed custom, for they eat more gladly man’s flesh than any other flesh; and yet is that country abundant of flesh, of fish, of corns, of gold and silver, and of all other goods. Thither go merchants and bring with them children to sell to them of the country, and they buy them. And if they be fat they eat them anon. And if they be lean they feed them till they be fat, and then they eat them. And they say, that it is the best flesh and the sweetest of all the world...". 

In this account of Lamary he continually mentions the Antarctic Star. He also called Sondur to the north, Somobor, whose people were continually at war with the people of Lamary and very proud. He then described another nearby island called Betemgar which is close to the Great Land of Java (Greater Java/ Australia). He seems to confuse Greater and Lesser Java in this account. He also mentions Pathen which would be the Pentam of Marco Polo.

The editors of Sir John Mandeville's account seem to have used Marco Polo's account and mixed it with Sir John's original text so that it jumps around the Indian Ocean rather than a systematic account and adds fantastical details to liven up the account for its readers. It even mentions the Isle of the Giants. He writes:


"... In one of these isles be folk of great stature, as giants. And they be hideous for to look upon. And they have but one eye, and that is in the middle of the front. And they eat nothing but raw flesh and raw fish...". 

The editor can't resist adding the detail about one eye which he knew from the story of the Cyclops.  He also writes of the island of the dwarfs or pygmies:


 "And in another isle there be little folk, as dwarfs. And they be two so much as the pigmies. And they have no mouth; but instead of their mouth they have a little round hole, and when they shall eat or drink, they take through a pipe or a pen or such a thing, and suck it in, for they have no tongue; and therefore they speak not, but they make a manner of hissing as an adder doth, and they make signs one to another as monks do, by the which every of them understandeth other...". 

He described many other people with mutations which were greater in Australia due to the man-made cataclysmic events that destroyed Eridu (Uluru and Kata Tjuta). There is also the remnants of a 'lost city' at King's Canyon not far from Uluru and Kata Tjuta (the Olgas).



The account at times seems to confuse Australia with China and India. However he describes a land he calls Mancy which is the land of Manneseh or Mani in Australia. At this time in the early 14th century it is prosperous with over 2000 cities. He also states that the country is also called Albany (and Greater India or Ind the More) because of the beauty of its white women (and men). He writes:


 "...a great country and a great kingdom that men crepe (called) Mancy. And that is in Ind the more. And it is the best land and one the fairest that may be in all the world, and the most delectable and the most plenteous of all goods that is in power of man. In that land dwell many Christian men and Saracens, for it is a good country and a great. And there be therein more than 2000 great cities and rich, without other great towns. And there is more plenty of people there than in any other part of Ind, for the bounty of the country. In that country is no needy man, ne none that goeth on begging. And they be full fair folk, but they be all pale. And the men have thin beards and few hairs, but they be long; but unnethe hath any man passing fifty hairs in his beard, and one hair sits here, another there, as the beard of a leopard or of a cat. In that land be many fairer women than in any other country beyond the sea, and therefore men clepe that land Albany, because that the folk be white...".

 He describes Mancy's inland city Latorin down a great river way full of ships.  



Mandeville then describes the city of the Tribe of Gad as Cassay. This City is on the Inland Sea or Lake:


 "...and from that city passing many journeys is another city, one the greatest of the world, that men clepe Cassay; that is to say, the ‘City of heaven.’ That city is well a fifty mile about, and it is strongly inhabited with people, insomuch that in one house men make ten households. In that city be twelve principal gates; and before every gate, a three mile or a four mile in length, is a great town or a great city. That city sits upon a great lake on the sea as doth Venice. And in that city be more than 12,000 bridges. And upon every bridge be strong towers and good, in the which dwell the wardens for to keep the city from the great Chan. And on that one part of the city runneth a great river all along the city. And there dwell Christian men and many merchants and other folk of diverse nations, because that the land is so good and so plenteous. And there groweth full good wine that men clepe Bigon, that is full mighty, and gentle in drinking. This is a city royal where the King of Mancy was wont to dwell. And there dwell many religious men, as it were of the Order of Friars, for they be mendicants...". 

It interesting that the Franciscans and other Christians are a part of this land. The Great Khan or Chan (Chin) is the Chinese Emperor who is the enemy of these people.  

In the north is the city of Chilenso by a great river called Dalay that at this stage separates Australia from the Chinese ruled territory in South East Asia. The River seems to run to where the homeland of the pygmies is situated in Chinese controlled territory. He also mentions again a valley of Giants and the Island of Giants off the Coast so that it would seem the land of Mistorak is on the original  northern coastline of Western Australia before it fell into the Sea. It also mentions the city or river of Thebe (or Sheba). At this time (in the 1320's) it would seem Australia (or the Greater (Third) Indies) is ruled by a Jewish Christian King called Prester John (Yohannan/ Jonu) which may have been a title rather than a name for his predecessors and successors. Prester John was the Overlord King or Emperor of the Three Indies and the King of Mancy (Java the Great/ Australia) was subject to him. 

It would seem that Prester John was both a priest and King who in the 12th century ruled over the Three Indies. The first India was the place today we call India (Malabar/ Bharat) and many lands to its north both west and east, the second was the East Indies or Indonesia in South East Asia (also known as Upper or Western Manzi/ Mancy) and the third India was also known as Java the Great (Australia) or Lower or Eastern Mancy (also called Upper India or Greater India). Prester John was the father of King David Soslan Prince of Osi and Ephraim who married Queen Tamar of Georgia. The Alexander connected with the story of Prester John (Rajadhiraja Chola II / Jadaron) of Chola (Soli) was not Alexander the Great of Macedonia but the Cholan ruler Rajender (Iskander/Alexander) the Great who became the Ruler of the Three Indies in the early 11th century. The name Chola is also written as Soli and is pronounced as Soli.



The widespread influence of Christianity in India is often hidden in histories of India. The Krishna story is a Hinduised version of the Christ story which was used as a way to encourage Christians to return to Hinduism in a Christian or Krishna form. The so-called Vaishnavism and Jainism often covers over a Christian movement. The Christianity of Prester John was a form of Nestorian Christianity that had inculturated itself to the Hindu culture and thought forms. Over time it took on more and more Hindu concepts and beliefs so that it was no-longer Christian but a new sect. 



Kulothunga Chola (Soli) II persecuted the Christians and destroyed the Chidambaram shrine (which at this time had been Christianised) but his grandson Rajadhiraja Chola (Soli) II was the son of a Christian Prince and he embraced the Christian faith and tolerated it throughout the Empire. Rajadhiraja II (Prester John) resigned his throne in 1178 to his cousin and he spent time in prayer and peaceful gardening pursuits as a Christian monk. His descendants on the throne of Pandyan Chola (Soli) continued this tolerant form of Christianity. His descendant Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan I (r.1251-1268) was seen as a new Prester John and began a Christian renewal and building of Christian temple-churches which later would pass into Hindu hands after 1308. The large spread and influence of Christianity in Medieval India was later covered up and hidden by the Hindus. 

Prester John was the son of Princess Rajasundari (Rusudan) the daughter of Kulothunga Chola II the Cholan Emperor of the Three Indies. His father was Aton Bagratuni King of the Alani (Osettia) a son of Prince David of Georgia (a grandson of King George I of Georgia) who fled to the Alans and married their Princess. A  son of Prester John, Solomon (Soli/ Choli), was married to the Princess of the Rubani (Albany) in Australia. Their son David (Dodi) was King of the Rubani and their daughter Tami was the High Queen of Mu (Amazons/ Amu-zons).   Prester John was married to a Pandyan Princess (the daughter of Kulasekhara Pandyan) and their son Vikkirama Pandyan was placed on the Throne of Pandya with the help of his cousin Kulothunga Chola III (who had succeeded Prester John as Emperor of the Three Indies). 

Prester John's Pandyan descendants seized control of the Empire of the Three Indies from Kulothunga Chola III of Chola and his family and became the Lord Emperors of the Three Indies. Pandya was originally settled by the Hend (Hindus) fleeing  Upper Mu (Sundaland) at the time of the Cataclysmic events around 600 BC for India. At the time of the civil war in the Pandyan homeland (after 1308) a Princess Pandia (Dini) went to Australia and married her relative King Soli of the Rubani, Mani and Gadi who now seized control of the overseas Empire of the Indies as its nominally Christian ruler Prester John. During the time of Kublai Khan much of the Second India (Indonesia/ Upper Mancy or Manzi) had come under Chinese control. This Soli-Dodi Dynasty in Australia reigned as the Prester Johns or Emperors of the Three Indies until 1530.

One writer believes that St Francis Xavier also visited Australia in 1545 and established a mission in a settlement named Mistorak which was named after the destroyed coastal land of Mistorak. At this stage the Tribes of Israel had left Australia. Also at this time the C-ydna Aboriginals were entering Australia. The accounts of Polo and Mandeville don't seem to directly mention the great High Queens of the South. Mandeville, however, does seem to allude to them and the connection with the Lost Ten Tribes. He says that Amazonia is near Albania (Albany where the white people live). No doubt he is saying that the Australian Amazonian territory is to the north East of the Kingdom of Manesseh (Mancy). It would seem that the editors of Mandeville confuse the three different Amazonian colonies- they also get confused because of the name of Scotra and Scythia, Albania and Albany.  

Could it be that at this stage her main seat of power was not in Australia but further South on Antarctica? Is this the famous Island of the Amazons? It would seem that these Queens had residences in Sheba (Thebes) in Australia, in Ethiopia and Egypt as well as in South America.

Themyscira2

Portuguese sailors first sighted Antarctica in 1488 which was about 40 years before the Ice covered Antarctica. In the book "The Amazons" by Guy Cadogan Rothery about the Amazons it states: 


"While we find the early Portuguese voyagers and their competitors placing a colony of these women in Socotra or some island, or islands, off the southeast coast of Africa, Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller, who wrote late in the thirteenth century, tells us of certain dual islands off the coast of India. He says: "When you leave this kingdom of Kesmacoran (Mekran), which is on the mainland, you go by sea some 500 miles towards the south, and then you find the two islands, Male and Female, lying about thirty miles distant from one another. The people are all baptized Christians, but maintain the ordinances of the Old Testament: thus when their wives are with child they never go near them till their confinement, and for forty days thereafter. In the island, however, which is called Male, dwell the men alone, without their wives or any other women. Every year when the month of March arrives the men all set out for the other island, and tarry there for three months,--to wit, March, April, May,--dwelling with their wives for that space. At the end of those three months they return to their own island, and pursue their husbandry and trade for the other nine months. . . . As for the children which their wives bear them, if they be girls, they abide with their mothers; but if they are boys, the mothers bring them up till they are fourteen, and then send them to their fathers. Such is the custom of the two islands. The wives do nothing but nurse their children and gather such fruit as their island produces, for their husbands do furnish them with all necessaries." All of which offers a striking contrast to the social economy usually attributed to the Amazons. Instead of the women being trained and equipped for warfare, we have a peace organisation, so that the whole appears to us little more than an exaggeration of common facts.

We are told that these people lived on flesh and rice; that there was plenty of ambergris cast up on the shores; that the men were excellent fishers; and, moreover, that they dwelt in islands far from the mainland. Now, under such conditions as these, in a small community, the men would probably be away from home at regular seasons for months together, pursuing their avocations of rice cultivation, fishing, and barter, and then the home island would be populated chiefly, if not entirely, by women and children. Added to this a possible adherence to Old Testament law (Marco Polo says that the islands had a bishop who was subject to the Archbishop of Socotra, whose Christianity would, no doubt, be somewhat akin to that of the Copts), or some analogous heathen custom, and we have a perfectly comprehensible explanation of the story." 


The island which is south-east of Africa is Antarctica. Was it from here that Palomi (Tami) originally came via Australia and the East to Europe and Spain? The Islands south of India 500 miles would seem to be where the Maldives are today. The Chagos Islands may be where the island of Scotra ( or Socotra) with its Jewish Christians lived. It would seem that the population of Scotra moved to the present Islands of Socotra off the coast of Africa and part of Yemen. It would seem that the RO or O mt-dna of the Amazon Queens is to this day found among the women of this island. It would seem that these Amazon islands are a colony from Antarctica. It is now easy due to 'google earth' to see all these submerged Indian Ocean and pacific Ocean lands which proves the validity of the original accounts of Polo, Mandeville and Odoric. 


Was New Zealand the remnant of Eastern Mu and the homeland of a Benjaminite Kingdom?

Antarctica was almost an island in the period before 1530 except that it was only separated from the southern tip of South America by a large River. It would seem that the Amazon men lived on the South American side of the River and the women on Antarctica. Mandeville writes: 

"This land of Amazonia is an isle, all environed with the sea save in two places, where be two entries. And beyond that water dwell the men that be their paramours and their loves, where they go to solace them when they will."
It would seem that after the cataclysmic events around 1400 BC the High Queens fled Australia (Mu) for a time and settled in the Antarctica. The legendary priestesses of Diana (Dione/ Dinah) came from this Isle in their ships. In the events of 1530 the last of the High queens of Antarctica fled with some survivors back to Australia under the leadership of Queen Dini.  Rothery writes:


 "...Sir John Mandeville, who looms large in the company of the quaint raconteurs, wrote of the Amazons as of an existing nation in his day, and says, among a plethora of other things, that they kept the lost ten tribes of Israel shut up in a valley surrounded by mountains..."
This refers to the Amazon territory in Australia (Sheba/ Thebe). Another group of the Amazons had left Australia with the Tribes of Manesseh, Dan and Reuben and there are accounts of these warrior women in the 17th and 18th centuries in the Caucasus and other places.  


Simbala and the York Peninsulars seemed to have been merged or confused

The Franciscan Friar Odoric also writes of Australia which he visits around 1318. After visiting Ceylon he travelled East across the sea to the Kingdom of Mancy which he also refers to as India (another India). This was the Manessehite Kingdom in  Northern Australia. He would later describe the inland kingdom of Gadi (Caudi). 


"...First of all, therefore, having travelled many days' journey upon the Ocean-sea toward the east, at length I arrived at a certain great province called Mancy, being in Latin named India. Concerning this India I inquired of Christians, of Saracens, and of idolaters, and of all such as bear any office under the great Can. Who all of them with one consent answered, that this province of Mancy hath more than 2000 great cities within the precincts thereof, and that it aboundeth with all plenty of victuals, as namely with bread, wine, rice, flesh, and fish. All the men of this province be artificers and merchants, who, though they be in never so extreme penury, so long as they can help themselves by the labour of their hands, will never beg aims of any man. The men of this province are of a fair and comely personage, but somewhat pale, having their heads shaven but a little: but the women are the most beautiful under the sun. The first city of the said India which I came unto, is called Ceuskalon, which being a day's journey distant from the sea, stands upon a river, the water whereof, near unto the mouth, where it exonerateth itself into the sea, doth overflow the land for the space of twelve days' journey. All the inhabitants of this India are worshippers of idols. The foresaid city of Ceuskalon hath such an huge navy belonging thereunto, that no man would believe it unless he should see it. In this city I saw 300 lb. of good and new ginger sold for less than a groat. There are the greatest and the fairest geese, and most plenty of them to be sold in all the whole world, as I suppose. They are as white as milk, and have a bone upon the crown of their heads as big as an egg, being of the colour of blood: under their throat they have a skin or bag hanging down half a foot. They are exceeding fat and well sold. Also they have ducks and hens in that country, one as big as two of ours. There be monstrous great serpents likewise, which are taken by the inhabitants and eaten: whereupon a solemn feast among them without serpents is nought set by: and to be brief, in this city there are all kind of victuals in great abundance..."
Odoric speaks of a city of Caitan in this land where the Franciscans have a mission.


"From thence I passed by many cities, and at length I came unto a city named Caitan, wherein the Friars Minorites have two places of abode, unto the which I transported the bones of the dead friars, which suffered martyrdom for the faith of Christ, as it is above mentioned. In this city there is abundance of all kind of victuals very cheap. The said city is as big as two of Bononia, and in it are many monasteries of religious persons, all which do worship idols. I myself was in one of those monasteries, and it was told me, that there were in it 3000 religious men, having 11,000 idols: and one of the said idols, which seemed unto me but little in regard of the rest, was as big as our Christopher. These religious men every day do feed their idol gods: whereupon at a certain time I went to behold the banquet: and indeed those things which they brought unto them were good to cat, and fuming hot, insomuch that the stream of the smoke thereof ascended up unto their idols, and they said that their gods were refreshed with the smoke: howbeit, all the meat they conveyed away, eating it up their own selves, and so they fed their dumb gods with the smoke only."
Odoric then travels even further East to a city called Fuco on the northern edge of the Inland Sea of Australia. He describes the black and white inhabitants of Australia at this time.
"Travelling more eastward, I came unto a city named Fuco, which containeth thirty miles in circuit, wherein be exceeding great and fair cocks, and all their hens are as white as the very snow, having wool instead of feathers, like unto sheep. It is a most stately and beautiful city and standeth upon the sea. Then I went eighteen days' journey on further, and passed by many provinces and cities, and in the way I went over a certain great mountain, upon the one side whereof I beheld all living creatures to be as black as a coal, and the men and women on that side differed somewhat in manner of living from others; howbeit, on the other side of the said hill every living thing was snow-white, and the inhabitants in their manner of living, were altogether unlike unto others."
Odoric then travels a further 18 days to another great city on a great inland River and Sea. He then travels to the city of Canasia which is like a modern city for size which shocks Odoric. Mandeville calls this city Cassay. 
"Travelling thence many days' journey, at length I arrived at another city called Canasia, which signifieth in our language, the city of heaven. Never in my life did I see so great a city: for it containeth in circuit an hundred miles: neither saw I any plot thereof, which was not throughly inhabited: yea, I saw many houses of ten or twelve stories high, one above another. It hath mighty large suburbs containing more people than the city itself. Also it hath twelve principal gates: and about the distance of eight miles, in the highway unto every one of the said gates standeth a city as big by estimation as Venice, and Padua. The foresaid city of Canasia is situated in waters or marshes, which always stand still, neither ebbing nor flowing: howbeit, it hath a defence for the wind like unto Venice. In this city there are more than 11,000 bridges, many whereof I numbered and passed over them: and upon every of those bridges stand certain watchmen of the city, keeping continual watch and ward about the said city, for the great Can the Emperor of Catay...The residue of the people of the city are some of them Christians, some merchants, and some travellers through the country, whereupon I marvelled much how such an infinite number of persons could inhabit and live together. There is great abundance of victuals in this city, as namely of bread and wine, and especially of hogs' flesh, with other necessaries."


It would seem that after Canasia Odoroic headed for the North to the city of Chilenso (probably near the present Islands of the Philippines and New Guinea on the border of the Chinese controlled Territory near the land of the pygmies. He headed to the north east towards Vietnam. At this time the Timor Sea and half of the Arafura were land above sea level but sunk in 1530. These great cities may now be under the waters of these Seas. 

We notice from early maps of the Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch a very different shape of Australia (Java the Great) and Java (Portuguese Java not the Java the Less of Marco Polo). Some of the problems result from trying to combine information from the pre-1530 maps and post-1530 maps. The coastlines of Australia and Java pre-1530 are different to post-1530. Before 1530 Java and Australia were only separated by a large River or water way called the Rio Grande leading into a huge harbour. Australia pre-1530 extended up to the islands between Java and Flores. The land on the east side of the harbour was known as Simbala by the Portuguese. Christmas Island may have once been part of Southern Java.



We also have to pose the question. What if the early Portuguese maps were more correct than we think and much of the eastern coast of Australia was covered by a shallow sea until 1530 and the Blue Mountains were formed rapidly in 1530? We know that this area was once under water according to scientists. While this is a possibility I think it is more likely that the map makers have confused and merged the Simbala and York Peninsulars thus distorting the map of Australia.


Sunken lands of the Indian Ocean

That three contemporary sources tell of these lands that once existed in the east is important evidence. The published account of Sir John Mandeville's travels has obviously been supplemented and thus confused by its editor or editors with Marco Polo and Odoric along with other information. However the details of Sir John Mandeville's travels can be reassessed using these same writings.

The discovery of  the Gambertsev Mountains under the Ice of Antartica has demonstrated that the Ice  and Mountains are more recent than scientists expected. In an article in Popular Mechanics titled "How Did Antarctica's Mysterious Ice-Encrusted Mountains Get There?" it states:
In 1958, Russian scientists climbed across the coldest place on earth, the immense Antarctic ice sheet, taking measurements of what lay under the surface. To their surprise, what they discovered was a giant, craggy mountain range totally hidden under the ice. 

Since their discovery, the Gamburtsevs have remained "the least understood mountains on Earth," says Fausto Ferraccioli, lead author of a new paper about the mountains’ formation. He says that those original explorers weren't expecting to see anything particularly exciting, since the innards of most ancient continents like Antarctica are basically flat, and scientists in the years since have wondered how the Gamburtsevs got there. For the study published today in Nature, Ferraccioli and colleagues gathered extensive new data that could help to explain these mysterious mountains. 

The big problem for geologists is this: The Gamburtsev mountains appear to be relatively young—they bear jagged peaks that haven't yet been worn down by erosion. Other mountain ranges that look like that are geological infants: the craggy Himalayas, for instance, are still in the process of being formed. But scientists know of no geological events in Antarctica’s recent history that could have created the Gamburtsevs. There are no continental plates in the area, for example, that could have squeezed together to push up mountains, which is how the Himalayas were created. 

Antartica without Ice (Nasa Image)

Could the water on Antarctica have been dumped there from outer space as suggested by Velikovsky. Are the craggy Gamburtsev Mountains actually from Mars along with the water? The Moons of Mars are craggy and many asteroids of Martian origin have been found on Antarctica by scientists. It would seem that around 1530 the Southern Hemisphere was bombarded by a satellite of Mars which dragged along the last of the Martian waters. Or was the two craggy moons of Mars and the craggy Gamburtsev Mountians part of a bigger Satellite of Mars that had its own fresh water that exploded? Did Jonathan Swift in 1726 know of the two moons of Mars because Mars and its satellites had come nearer to the earth in 1530 and its two moons were observed? 


Fine's 1531 map of Antarctica without the Palmer Peninsular 

In confirmation of the lack of ice on Antarctica is the updated map of Johannes Schoner of 1524 which is based on the latest Portuguese discoveries but with no evidence of any ice on Antarctica. On these early 16th century maps of ice -free Antarctica [of Schoner (1524) and Fine (1531)] there is no Palmer Peninsular on their maps. Was the Palmer Peninsular like the Gambursevs part of the debris of the Martian moon or did the impact make land that had sunk in an early period rise above the sea again?



see

Hatshepsut and the Land of Mu