Wednesday, December 16, 2009

James Bartram of Emerald Hills

View of the Church of St John the Baptist Aylmerton

James Bartram came to the Swan River colony of Western Australia as a young boy of 16 with his Carter relative. James at first lived and worked at Merrow Farm with Thomas Carter. He also is said to have gone with Thomas Carter to the Beverley area. He became a leading citizen in Beverley Western Australia. He was a grazier and a mill owner among many other things including Post master and Justice of the Peace. It was known that he was born in Norfolk England in 1826-7 but for many years the actual birthplace was unknown. There is a photo of James Bartram with female relatives in East Dereham when he returned there in 1858 for a visit.

Aylmerton village in Norfolk

Recent research has revealed that James Bartram was born in 1826-7 in Aylmerton Norfolk near Felbrigg Hall as were his siblings. Some of the census records record Erpingham as this was the parish district which the village of Aylmerton and its 500 year old Church, St John the Baptist, was included under. His father William John Bartram (1801-1842) was a farmer in Aylmerton. They were relatives of the leading family of this area of Norfolk the Wyndham or Windham family who owned Felbrigg Hall. William John Bartram was born in 1801 in North Repps Norfolk.

William's father Sir Robert Bartram (1761-1844) was born in Norwich Norfolk and later settled in South Repps, North Repps and Metton areas connected to his Wyndham relatives and his Bartram ancestors. Sir Robert married his relative Anna Modin (Maiden/ Maidman) who was known as Lady Bartram. He may have met his wife in Italy where he travelled as a merchant trader to visit his relative Richard Bartram of Civitavecchia. Anna was the daughter of Jacob Modin (aka James Maiden) and Sarah de Medina. Sir Robert's grandmother Lady Wright was known as Sarah Maidman or Maiden. They were born as Italian Jewesses connected to the Barzelay (Barzillai), Medina and Modin families of Venice, Amsterdam and the West Indies. James F Cook in his book "The Governors of Georgia 1754-2004" states that Sir James Wright (1716-1785) and Sarah Maidman (d.1763) had nine children. They were Sir James (the second baronet), Sarah, Alexander, Charles, Ann, Elizabeth, Charlotte, Mary and Isabella.

James Bartram in East Dereham Norfolk in 1858 with his female relatives

Sir Robert and Lady Bartram with their two oldest children visited America around 1800 in search of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Captain Anderson writes about their visit to Wisconsin:"Proceeding three miles we came to the beginning of a six mile rapid the greater part of which Lady Bartram and I had to take dry land to overcome in order to relieve the canoe of surplus weight as the men had to wade and carefully avoid the rocks in dragging the canoe up this toilsome obstruction. The slow process of working up the rapids gave time for splendid fishing sport. Black bass were very abundant and I caught enough for supper and breakfast for all on board. Having at length overcome all the rapids, the water being low, the men were all tired and I said 'camp.' Lady Bartram prepared the supper. Now, reader, you may take a peep at our party, all squatted flat on the mats, Mr. Anderson (the writer) presiding, with Lady Bartram on the right, Sir Bartram on the left ready to bring the tea kettle, and then Master and Miss Bartram in front, scrambling for the fish eyes in the dish, at which their progenitors exult to witness their activity."-(Narrative of Captain Thomas G. Anderson 1800; Wisconsin Historical Cols., Vol. IX.)

St Andrew's Metton Norfolk

James' mother Ann (Strange) died in 1835 and his father in 1842. Their uncle Sir James Bartram of Metton reared James brother Henry and his sister Ann after the death of their parents. Sir James Bartram is said to have 280 acres of farming land in Metton and employing ten labourers in the 1841 Census. James decided to go with his relative Thomas Carter to Western Australia when Thomas was on a visit to England in 1842-3. Henry was the heir of his uncle Sir James Bartram and they also released and farmed Metton Hall farm from John Ketton who bought the Felbrigg estate from Frederick William Windham (Mad Windham)in 1863. The Bartram family had been associated with Metton and the Windham family since the 16th century when Reverend John Bartram was the Rector of Metton. John Bartram (Juan Bertran) was from a Marrano family from the Balearic island of Minorca. Henry Bartram of Metton seems to have had a mistress or secret wife that his Uncle didn't approve of because of her lowly background. She was known as Mrs Elizabeth Bartram of East Dereham. Admiral Windham's maps list the farms of the Bartram family in Aylmerton and surrounding areas as well as a Carter farm under the heading of Aylmerton and Sustead.
Stone Cross at Aylmerton

The 1841 census lists James Bartram as 15 years and living with his father William and grandfather Robert as well as with some of his siblings William (b.1835), John (b.1830)and Elizabeth (b.1828)in the parish of Erpingham. Henry Bartram (1832-1891) and Ann Bartram (1829-1888) and their brother Robert (b.1833 d.1900)may have been living with other relatives at this time and out of England with their grandmother. Robert later had an apprenticeship in London and settled in West Ham Essex, possbily he was also with his uncle James until he went to London. In the 1851 Census John Bartram is visiting his uncle Sir James Bartram and his brother Henry and sister Ann and he is listed as a shopman grocer. John married Mary Ann Bartram Howes (daughter of William Howes and his wife Elizabeth Bartram) on 27 December 1859 in Norwich and in the 1861 Census he is listed as a farmer with 100 acres and employer of 6 farm labourers in Lessingham Norfolk. His daughter Anne Bartram was born in 1862. In 1871 John's brother Henry and his sister Elizabeth were living with him in Lessingham, at this time a number of relatives were also visiting John including his sister Mrs Ann Fuller (wife of Benjamin Barcham Fuller), his sister-in-law Mrs Anne Bartram of Essex with her children Alice M Bartram and Walter Bartram (aged 3), and his wife's neice Anna Skelton (daughter of William Allen Skelton and Rachel Howes). His wife also had a brother called James Bartram Howes (b.1836).
Sir James Wright Bart.

Their grandfather Robert was the grandson of Sir James Alexander Wright (Baronet) the last Royal Governor of Georgia. The name of Emerald Hills is believed to have come from the Wright property in either Georgia or South Carolina where Sir James Wright lived with his father Robert Wright. Sir Robert Bartram's mother was Sarah Wright and his father was William Bartram (b.1744).

Felbrigg Hall near Aylmerton

William Bartram of Fremantle was believed by many to have possibly been James Bartram's father William. This was not so. However another William Bartram of Norwich was closely related to the Bartram family of Aylmerton both through the Bartram family and the Howes family. In fact James' aunt Elizabeth Bartram (b.1805) was married to her relative William Howes and William Bartram of Norwich was the son of William Charles Bartram and Mary Howes (b.1771). Mary Howes was the daughter of Robert Howes (b.1737) and Elizabeth Bartram (b.1747) the sister of William Bartram (b.1744).
Lady Bartram of Norfolk and Italy

There is also another William Bartram (b.1796 Brumstead Norfolk) living in Aylmerton married to Mary Starling in 1824 in South Repps. They had three children born in Aylmerton John b.1828, Elizabeth b.1825 and Anne b.1827. This William Bartram is the son of James Wright Bartram (b.1763) and Elizabeth Engall the ancestor of the Bartrams of Melbourne. This William is believed by some researchers to be identified with William Bartram of Fremantle who married as his second wife Sarah Carter in December 1834 in Antingham. Sarah was the sister of Thomas and Henry Carter of Fremantle. The existence of two William Bartram's in Aylmerton has caused some confusion for those researching the Bartram origins.

William Bartram of Fremantle also had four brothers called Cubbitt Engall Bartram of Great Yarmouth and Civita Vecchia (b.1798 Brumstead Norfolk)and Charles Bartram (b. 1801 Brumstead)and John Engall Bartram of Civita Vecchia (b.1804 d.1835)and James Bartram of Cromer. Charles had a son called Cubitt Engall Bartram (b.1848). The elder Cubbitt and his brother John took over the merchant business of their relative Richard Bartram (1749-1826)of Civita Vecchia Italy.

There is interesting correspondence between the Reverend William Gunn of Smallburgh Norfolk and the Bartrams in Civita Vecchia. Cubitt first arrived in Civita Vecchia in 1820 to join his relative Richard Bartram and became his heir. The Norfolk Record Office archive on William Gunn states:"...Next there is a run of letters from Richard Bartram (c 1749-1826), a Norfolk man who had settled as a merchant at Civitavecchia. Gunn met him first during a flying visit to Rome in 1785, and then again in 1792-1793. Bartram was responsible for shipping to Gunn the many copies of works of art and books which he ordered during his visit, but the correspondence continued for the rest of Bartram's life. His letters contain an account of affairs in Italy during the occupation by the French, and its aftermath. Gunn helped him to select the Bartram cousin most suitable to become a merchant, and this young man, Cubitt Bartram, became his partner, and then his heir, and continued the correspondence from Civitavecchia into the 1830s..."

Richard Bartram was also connected with the story of the secret papers of the Royal Stuart dynasty in Italy. Sir James Bartram and his brother William Bartram were also believed to have been connected with the Jacobites, Joseph Wolff and Sir Henry Drummond. Their mother Lady Bartram was born an Italian Jewess was said to be the granddaughter of Cardinal York (alias David Rennie/Modin) and his Italian Jewish mistress with whom the Cardinal had two children before the Cardinal entered religious life. In "Calendar of the Stuart papers belonging to His Majesty the King, preserved at Windsor Castle" it tells the story of how the Stuart papers were brought to Windsor Castle. "...The cases of papers purchased from Waters were in 1805, at Sir J. C. Hippisley's request, deposited by the Treasurer General of the English Benedictines in the custody of Mr. Richard Bartram, who was acting as English Consul at Civita Vecchia, to await an opportunity of transmitting them to England. Sir J. C. Hippisley had been authorized by the Prince of Wales to concert with Lord Nelson such measures as best promised to secure the papers, and after Lord Nelson's death Lord Collingwood wrote to Sir John, in Jan., 1806, that he would endeavour to carry out the plan which had been settled with him. He accordingly, early in July, 1806, sent a brig of war under Capt. Raitt to Civita Vecchia, but unfortunately, twelve days before, the French had unexpectedly occupied the town and the brig's boats were not allowed to land. Another attempt in September by Capt. Raitt to communicate with Mr. Bartram was also unsuccessful. Two days after the occupation of the town Mr. Bartram was arrested and thrown into a dungeon, with threats of being shot, if he did not disclose any property he might have or knew to be at Civita Vecchia belonging to England or to Englishmen. He had fortunately secreted the papers previously, and for several years preserved them safely, though with the greatest personal risk to himself. Mr. Paul Macpherson, the Principal of the Scots College at Rome, frequently communicated with Mr. Bartram with the view of removing the papers from Civita Vecchia, and they were ultimately delivered to the order of Sir J. C. Hippisley, brought to Mr. Bartam by Mr. Macpherson. {Foreign Office Papers, Italian States, No. 8.) A Mr. Bonelli, to whom Sir John had been authorized by the Prince of Wales to confide the commission for obtaining the papers, succeeded, with Mr. Macpherson's assistance, though with considerable risk, in shipping them to Leghorn, from which they were embarked in a Tunisian vessel to Tunis. They were forwarded from thence to Malta, and finally arrived in England in or about 1810, and were placed in the library of Carlton House..."
Richard also had a property in Trimmingham. Cubitt Engall Bartram J.P. of Great Yarmouth had a son Richard Bartram born in 1843 in Civitavecchia and a daughter Ellen Bartram born Civita Vecchia in 1834. Cubitt Engall Bartram of Melbourne Australia may be the one born in 1848 in Norfolk who was the father of Charles and Percy Bartram of Melbourne.
Another view of Felbrigg Hall Home of the Windham family until 1863

James Bartram's wife Jane Williams was of crypto- Jewish ancestry, however one family tradition told by Henry Hillyer Bartram (1883-1949) of Dumbleyung was that they were related to the Butter Factory Bartram's of Melbourne and that the Bartram were of Spanish Jewish or Gypsy origin on the male line. James Bartram was the father of Henry Bartram of Dumbleyung (1849-1930) and John Robert Bartram of Beverley (1861-1937). Henry Bartram of Beverley and Dumbleyung in Western Australia

Recent Y-dna testing demonstates that the Bartram's have a very uncommon y-dna (with no known matches yet closer than on the 12 level) in the group known as R-SYR2627. This Y-dna goes back to Spain and the Jewish community of the Balearic Islands. The Bartram's of Metton Norfolk descend from Llorens Bertran of Alaior Minorca Spain who took the surname of Bertran from his mother Antonina Judith Henriquez Bertran and Llorens from his father Juan Llorens (Yechiel Luria). In the past members of the family have thought that the family descended from the Bartram family mentioned in the Doomsday book who were of Norman origin. However the R-SYR2627 y-dna proves this very unlikely as so far there is O % of SYR2627 among R1b found in Scandinavia. Others speculated that it was an Old British (Welsh) family in origin but R-SYR2627 is so far 0 % in Wales among R1b. The Bartram family of Scotland and its branches in North America (also called Bertran and Bertrand) are of a different ydna to the Bartram ydna of Metton Norfolk. Both Bartram families are R1b1b2 but come from this ancestry on different male lineages. The Bartram families of Marchington Staffordshire, Norton Derby and Somerset all go back to an ancestor called John Bartram around 1585-1595. However without dna testing we do not know if these Bartram families are related.